Lesson 5

Mastering Arithmetic and Logical Operations in Kotlin

Lesson Overview

Welcome to a new chapter of our Kotlin journey: arithmetic and logical operations. These operations are essential in programming for performing calculations and facilitating decision-making. Let's start exploring!

Importance of Arithmetic Operations in Kotlin

Arithmetic operations in Kotlin include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%). The modulus operation, %, calculates the remainder after dividing one number by another. For instance, 7 % 3 equals 1 because 7 divided by 3 leaves a remainder of 1. We'll explore these operations through examples using variables a and b:

Kotlin
1val a = 10 2var b = 2 3 4println(a + b) // prints: 12 5println(a - b) // prints: 8 6println(a * b) // prints: 20 7println(a / b) // prints: 5 8println(a % b) // prints 0, because the remainder of 10/5 is 0
Increment and Decrement Operators

In Kotlin, increment (++) and decrement (--) operators play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of loops and modifying variable values with precision. These operators either increase or decrease the value of a variable by one. They are available in two forms: prefix and postfix.

  • Prefix Increment/Decrement: When used before a variable (e.g., ++count or --count), the operation is performed, and the new value of the variable is used in the expression immediately.
  • Postfix Increment/Decrement: When used after a variable (e.g., count++ or count--), the current value of the variable is used in the expression, and then the operation is performed.
Kotlin
1var level = 1 2println(++level) // Outputs 2: level is incremented before printing. 3println(level--) // Outputs 2: level is printed, then decremented. 4println(level) // Outputs 1: reflects the decrement.
Compound Assignment Operators

Kotlin simplifies arithmetic operations combined with assignment through compound assignment operators. These operators, including +=, -=, *=, /=, and %=, merge an arithmetic operation with an assignment, streamlining code and enhancing readability.

Kotlin
1var score = 100 2score += 10 // same as `score = score + 10`, score is now 110 3score -= 20 // same as `score = score - 20`, score is now 90 4score *= 2 // same as `score = score * 2`, score is now 180 5score /= 3 // same as `score = score / 3`, score is now 60 6score %= 7 // same as `score = score % 7`, score is now 4
Understanding Logic in Kotlin

Logical operations, specifically AND (&&), OR (||), and NOT (!), within Kotlin are indispensable for making branching decisions. AND (&&) returns true only if both operands are true. OR (||) returns true if either operand is true. NOT (!) inverts the boolean value. Consider an example of an in-game task:

Kotlin
1val hasEnoughPoints = true 2val hasEnoughCoins = false 3 4println(hasEnoughPoints && hasEnoughCoins) // prints: false 5println(hasEnoughPoints || hasEnoughCoins) // prints: true 6println(!hasEnoughCoins) // prints: true
Combining Arithmetic and Logical Operations

Arithmetic and logical operations can be combined. Let's express the conditions for a game through such combinations:

Kotlin
1val points = 150 2val coins = 5 3val isPremiumMember = true 4 5val canUnlockLevel = points > 100 && (coins > 10 || isPremiumMember) 6println(canUnlockLevel) // prints: true
Lesson Summary and Practical Application

Congratulations on becoming familiar with arithmetic and logical operations in Kotlin! You've mastered how these operations can shape our programs and influence behavior based on specific conditions. We'll reinforce this knowledge with some practice exercises. Are you ready? Let's dive in!

Enjoy this lesson? Now it's time to practice with Cosmo!

Practice is how you turn knowledge into actual skills.