Lesson 4

Greetings, scholars!

As we progress and leverage insights from Python and its remarkable libraries, `Numpy`

and `Pandas`

, we embark on an important mission today - `Optimization`

. This session is dedicated to learning the art of refining code to enhance computation efficiency and optimize memory usage — an essential requirement when working with large datasets.

In `Data Science`

, large datasets are the norm. Handling such volumes of data efficiently and optimum use of system resources is necessary. *Code optimization* is our key strategy in these situations. It aims to enhance two critical aspects: reducing computation time and improving memory utilization. With these skills, handling large-scale datasets becomes much smoother!

Sit tight; we're about to journey through `Python`

, `Numpy`

, and `Pandas`

, exploring the elements they offer for a smooth ride on the road to optimization.

Can you imagine setting off to a neighborhood store by taking a long detour over the hills? It seems incredible, right? That's precisely what inefficient code does. It solves problems using longer, convoluted routes, squandering valuable resources while accomplishing the bare minimum.

Here's where understanding **algorithmic complexity** or **Big-O notation** becomes significant. Consider algorithmic complexity as a measure of your algorithm's efficiency relative to the input size. **Time Complexity** and **Space Complexity**, the two aspects governing this efficiency, dictate how the time is taken for execution and memory usage changes with the input size. A thorough understanding of these can be a game-changer when dealing with large volumes of data.

Consider finding a book in a library, for instance. If you have no idea where the book is located, you might scan each aisle until you find it. Although simple, this approach incurs a time complexity of `O(n)`

. However, if the books are sorted, and you follow the `binary search`

strategy, repeatedly halving your search space until you find the book, you'd have a more efficient time complexity of `O(log n)`

. Quite an impressive time-saver!

Python's memory management is governed by the language’s built-in **garbage collector**. The **garbage collector** tracks all your objects and discards the ones no longer required, freeing the memory occupied by this unnecessary data. Suppose you assigned substantial data to a variable that isn't needed later. Python's garbage collector would free up the memory preemptively occupied by that variable's data.

While Python's garbage collector works effectively, handling large datasets can pose challenges. Consider variables that handle sizable data chunks. If not managed properly, they can consume major memory, even when redundant, leading to a 'Memory Leak.' Consequently, learning to efficiently manage your memory resources by releasing unneeded bulky variables or adopting memory-efficient data types becomes crucial.

As we turn our gears towards `Numpy`

, we discover multiple techniques that assist in optimizing our code. Remember Numpy's ability to perform operations on an entire array instantaneously? Yes, we're talking about `vectorization`

, a powerful tool that substantially increases performance.

How about slicing cheese for your sandwich on a Sunday morning? Similarly, efficient indexing or slicing can also help improve performance. For instance, **fancy indexing** — a feature unique to `Numpy`

, allows you to perform complicated array manipulations in one go.

Don't forget; the champion in `Numpy's`

arena for code optimization is undoubtedly the **universal functions** or **ufuncs**. Engineered to perform swift element-wise operations, `ufuncs`

enhance computational efficiency and support memory-saving operations.

As we believe in the saying "Practice makes perfect," let's demonstrate with a simple example that shows the speed difference between using Python's native function and a NumPy's vectorized function:

Python`1import numpy as np 2import time 3 4# Define a large array 5large_array = np.random.rand(10**6) 6 7# Python way of summing elements in an array 8start = time.time() 9print("Built-in list sum", sum(large_array)) # This calculates the sum using Python's built-in function 10print("Time to calculate the sum in a Python list:", time.time() - start) 11# Prints "Time to calculate the sum in a Python list: 0.0417783260345459" 12 13# Numpy way 14start = time.time() 15print("Numpy sum:", np.sum(large_array)) # This calculates the sum using Numpy's vectorized function 16print("Time to calculate the sum in a Numpy list:", time.time() - start) 17# Prints "Time to calculate the sum in a Numpy list: 0.00037097930908203125"`

Running the above script clearly shows the difference in speed. The `Numpy`

operation turns out to be substantially faster!

Shifting our focus towards `Pandas`

, we discover several handy techniques for code optimization. For example, an important area is the optimal selection of data types.

The first technique is choosing the `pd.Categorical`

data type (or use `.astype('category')`

) specifically for categorical data (data that takes on a limited, usually fixed, number of possible values), which can yield significant savings in memory. Data types like integers and floats take up more memory space than categorical data types, which can significantly reduce memory usage, especially for large datasets. For high-cardinality columns (columns with many thousands of unique values), transforming them into a 'category' type can make operations like grouping much faster.

Python`1df['Type'] = pd.Categorical(df['Type']) 2df['MedInc'] = df['MedInc'].astype('category')`

Another way is to reduce memory usage for cases where DataFrame features are not categorical. In Pandas, `downcast`

is a parameter to downcast data types of Dataframe. It's used with `pd.to_numeric()`

function to downcast data types of numeric columns to either 'integer', 'signed', 'unsigned', or 'float'. For example:

Python`1# Downcast data type for 'AveBedrms' column 2df['AveBedrms'] = pd.to_numeric(df['AveBedrms'], downcast='float') 3df['Population'] = df['Population'].astype('int32')`

will convert the `'AveBedrms'`

column to the smallest possible float subtype that can accommodate the data in the column.
Especially in large datasets, using more precision than you need can waste memory. If you are sure that the precision provided by a smaller subtype is sufficient for your analysis, you might want to downcast to that subtype. For example, a `float64`

takes up more memory than a `float32`

, but a `float32`

still provides 7 decimal points of precision, which might be enough in most cases.

Another valuable asset is **method chaining**, which combines several operations into one unified code line, improving execution speed and enhancing code readability.

Also, it is worth noting that the `inplace`

parameter in `Pandas`

operations deserves mention because it is more memory-friendly. It applies changes directly to your `DataFrame`

instead of creating an entirely new frame for the output.

Python`1# Regular way 2df_copy = df[df['Population] > 1000] 3df_copy.dropna(inplace=True) 4 5# Optimized way 6df[df['Population'] > 1000].dropna(inplace=True)`

In the snippet above, a method chain combines two operations: first, it filters rows in which the population exceeds 1000, then drops any rows with missing values — all in one swift move!

With our newfound understanding of optimization techniques and principles, let's put them to the test with the `California Housing`

dataset. We'll explore techniques like converting to the correct data types, leveraging the potential of method chaining, and assessing differences in execution speeds and memory utilization before and after optimization.

This exercise demonstrates the tangible benefits of adopting various optimization techniques. It's essential to remember optimization mainly involves balance. Yes, you might speed up execution, but it might also consume some memory. Finding the right balance based on your specific needs is the essence of optimization!

Let's apply some of the `Numpy`

and `Pandas`

optimization techniques we've learned about to the California Housing dataset. This will help showcase the real-world benefits of optimizing your code base.

Python`1import pandas as pd 2from sklearn import datasets 3import numpy as np 4 5# Load the California Housing dataset 6california = datasets.fetch_california_housing() 7df = pd.DataFrame(data=np.c_[california['data'], california['target']], columns=california['feature_names'] + ['target']) 8 9def memory_usage_pandas(df): 10 bytes = df.memory_usage(deep=True).sum() 11 return bytes / 1024**2 # Convert bytes to megabytes 12 13original_memory = memory_usage_pandas(df) 14 15# Optimize memory usage in Pandas using categorical data types 16# California Housing dataset does not have any Categorical features, so we will use downcasting 17df['AveBedrms'] = pd.to_numeric(df['AveBedrms'], downcast='float') 18df['AveRooms'] = pd.to_numeric(df['AveRooms'], downcast='float') 19optimized_memory = memory_usage_pandas(df) 20 21print(f'Original memory usage: {original_memory} MB') 22print(f'Optimized memory usage: {optimized_memory} MB') 23print(f'Memory saved: {original_memory - optimized_memory} MB')`

This script first loads the `California Housing`

dataset into a `Pandas DataFrame`

. It then defines a `memory_usage_pandas()`

function to determine the memory usage of the `DataFrame`

. After obtaining the original memory usage, the script downcasts data types for `'AveBedrms'`

and `'AveRooms'`

columns, optimizing memory usage. The final result highlights the memory saved due to this optimization.

Congratulations on your journey through the maze of `Python`

, `Numpy`

, and `Pandas optimization techniques`

. You've explored why optimization is pivotal when dealing with large datasets. We've also dipped our toe into `Python's`

memory management mechanism via its `garbage collector`

and taken a deep dive into mastering optimization techniques in `Numpy`

and `Pandas`

with numerous hands-on code examples.

As we move forward, we'll be applying these principles to many hands-on activities, paving the way to honing your command over `Python`

, `Numpy`

, and `Pandas`

!

Energized by this newfound understanding of optimization techniques, gear up for the upcoming practice sessions. Consider these as your training exercises — each one designed to reinforce your knowledge about code optimization and strengthen your coding muscles. As you undertake these exercises, handling large-scale datasets, minimizing computation time, and improving memory utilization will become second nature. Stay tuned for more! Happy learning!