Lesson 1

Exploring Java Space: For Loops and Beyond

Lesson Overview

Welcome to our lesson on Java's for loop. We use loops to repeat some action multiple times without the need to write the code for every iteration. A for loop can be likened to a set task — say, visiting each planet in our solar system one by one. By the end of this journey, you will understand and be able to use the basic for loop and the enhanced for loop in Java.

Understanding the Basic For Loop in Java

Imagine lining up your favorite planet toys in order. You take one, put it in line, and repeat until you run out of toys. This is precisely how the basic for loop works in Java!

Here's the syntax:

1for (initialization; condition; post-iteration actions) { 2 // Some task to do 3}

This loop does the following:

  • First, we do the initialization
  • Then, while the condition is true, we keep executing the task inside the loop body
  • After each iteration, we execute post-iteration actions that change the state in some way

Now, let's demonstrate this with code that prints numbers 1 through 5:

1for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) { 2 // The following command will print the number i 3 System.out.println(i); 4} 5// Prints: 6// 1 7// 2 8// 3 9// 4 10// 5

Here, we defined an int variable i, assigned it to 1 first, and then repeated System.out.println(i); while i <= 5, incrementing i by 1 after every iteration. By the way, i++ is a short form for i += 1, which is i = i + 1 - so it's just adding 1 to the current value of i, but in a short way! This operation is called increment.

Enhanced For Loop

Now, remember flipping pancakes? You pour one pancake, let it cook, then pour the next one, continuing until the batter is finished. Guess what? The enhanced for loop operates in a similar fashion!

Here's an example of printing all elements of an array:

1int[] numbers = {5, 4, 3, 2, 1}; 2 3// The loop below will take each element num from numbers and print it 4for (int num: numbers) { 5 System.out.println(num); 6} 7// Prints: 8// 5 9// 4 10// 3 11// 2 12// 1

Quite the pancake flipper, isn't it?

Difference Between the Basic For Loop and the Enhanced For Loop

You'd typically use a basic for loop when you need to perform a task a specific number of times. In contrast, an enhanced for loop is your go-to when you have a collection (like an array, list, map, or set) and need to perform an action for each item in that collection.

Let's illustrate with both loops printing numbers from an array:

Basic for loop:

1// This loop will print all numbers from the numbers array using its indices 2int[] numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; 3 4// `i` goes through all array indices - 0, 1, 2, ..., numbers.length - 1 5for (int i = 0; i < numbers.length; i++) { 6 System.out.println(numbers[i]); 7} 8// Prints: 9// 1 10// 2 11// 3 12// 4 13// 5

Enhanced for loop:

1// This loop will print all numbers from the numbers array, directly taking each of them 2int[] numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; 3 4for (int num: numbers) { 5 System.out.println(num); 6} 7// Prints: 8// 1 9// 2 10// 3 11// 4 12// 5
Lesson Summary

Congratulations, Space Explorer! You've mastered the Java for loop! You can now loop over arrays just like visiting space planets!

Now, it's practice time! This will solidify your understanding and prepare you for the next lesson on nested loops. Let's continue our voyage in the programming universe! Happy coding!

Enjoy this lesson? Now it's time to practice with Cosmo!

Practice is how you turn knowledge into actual skills.