Lesson 3

Navigating the Stars: An Introduction to Python's Simple Built-in Functions

Introduction to Built-in Functions in Python

Welcome, explorer! Are you ready to venture into the realm of Python's built-in functions? These comprehensive tools can streamline your code, saving both time and effort. Our mission is to familiarize ourselves with some of Python's straightforward built-in functions. Let's embark on this journey!

Much like a built-in navigational system guiding astronauts, Python's built-in functions serve as accessible tools to navigate through coding tasks at any time. They operate as our guiding stars through the cosmic realm of programming.

Exploring Simple Python Built-in Functions: len()

Let's chart a course through Python's built-in functions:

The len() function: This function counts elements in a list, set, tuple, or any data structure, much like counting candies in a box:

Python
1candies_list = ['star1', 'star2', 'star3', 'star4'] 2print(len(candies_list)) # Output: 4 3 4candies_set = {'star1', 'star2', 'star3', 'star4'} 5print(len(candies_set)) # Output: 4 6 7candies_tuple = ('star1', 'star2', 'star3', 'star4') 8print(len(candies_tuple)) # Output: 4
Absolute value: abs()

The abs() function: Functioning like a device determining a spaceship's absolute distance in light years from a specific point in space, this function gives the absolute value of a number.

Python
1print(abs(-10)) # Output: 10 2print(abs(7)) # Output: 7
Float numbers rounding: round()

The round() function: Similar to rounding off estimated distances or times, this function rounds a number to the nearest integer.

Python
1print(round(10.675)) # Output: 11 2print(round(10.365)) # Output: 10 3print(round(7.5)) # Output: 8
Minimal and Maximal Values: min() and max()

The min() and max() functions: These functions find the smallest and largest items in a list, set, or tuple, just as one might measure the smallest and largest star masses in a galaxy:

Python
1stars_list = [2.1, 3.2, 1.0, 5.4, 4.4] # Sizes of stars 2print(min(stars_list)) # Output: 1.0 3print(max(stars_list)) # Output: 5.4 4 5stars_set = {2.1, 3.2, 1.0, 5.4, 4.4} # Sizes of stars 6print(min(stars_set)) # Output: 1.0 7print(max(stars_set)) # Output: 5.4 8 9stars_tuple = (2.1, 3.2, 1.0, 5.4, 4.4) # Sizes of stars 10print(min(stars_tuple)) # Output: 1.0 11print(max(stars_tuple)) # Output: 5.4
Sum of elements: sum()

The sum() function: Analogous to summing up the masses of materials collected during space exploration, this function sums up the elements in a list, set, or tuple:

Python
1elements_mass = [5, 3, 2, 6] # Mass here in kilograms 2print(sum(elements_mass)) # Output: 16 3 4elements_mass = {5, 3, 2, 6} # Mass here in kilograms 5print(sum(elements_mass)) # Output: 16 6 7elements_mass = (5, 3, 2, 6) # Mass here in kilograms 8print(sum(elements_mass)) # Output: 16
Ordering elements: sorted()

The sorted() function: This function sorts items in a list in the same way artifacts discovered during a space expedition might be chronologically organized:

Python
1artifacts = [50, 100, 25, 75] # Antique value here in arbitrary unit 2print(sorted(artifacts)) # Output: [25, 50, 75, 100]

You can also sort elements in a reversed order:

Python
1print(sorted(artifacts, reverse=True)) # Output: [100, 75, 50, 25]
Lesson Summary

You've learned to use Python’s built-in functions len(), abs(), round(), min(), max(), sum(), and sorted(). Keep practicing with these functions to improve your programming skills. You're now ready for quizzes and exercises designed to further hone these skills. Keep going and keep exploring!

Enjoy this lesson? Now it's time to practice with Cosmo!

Practice is how you turn knowledge into actual skills.