Hello, and welcome to the next exciting chapter of our data science journey! So far, you have mastered data manipulation and visualization. Now it's time to elevate your data game further by diving into the realm of modeling and prediction. This lesson will introduce you to key techniques in predictive modeling, helping you make sense of your data in ways you never thought possible.
In this lesson, you will explore:
Here's a sneak peek at the kinds of analyses you'll be performing:
Loading the Data:
R1# Load the necessary dataset 2data(mtcars)
In this example, we will use the mtcars
dataset, which contains various car attributes such as miles per gallon (mpg), horsepower (hp), and transmission type (am).
Fitting a Simple Model:
R1# Fit a linear regression model 2model <- lm(mpg ~ hp, data = mtcars) 3print(summary(model))
We start by fitting a simple linear regression model to understand the relationship between mpg
(miles per gallon) and hp
(horsepower). The lm
function is used to fit the model, and summary
provides detailed information about the fitted model.
Evaluating the Model:
R1# Calculate and print R-squared and Mean Squared Error (MSE) 2rsq <- summary(model)$r.squared 3mse <- mean(model$residuals^2) 4cat(sprintf("R-squared: %.2f\n", rsq)) 5cat(sprintf("Mean Squared Error: %.2f\n", mse))
Here, we evaluate the linear regression model by calculating the R-squared value and the Mean Squared Error (MSE). The R-squared value indicates the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable. The MSE helps us understand the average of the squared differences between observed and predicted values.
Data Preparation:
R1# Convert 'am' column to a factor for logistic regression 2mtcars$am <- as.factor(mtcars$am)
Before fitting a logistic regression model, we need to convert the am
column, which represents transmission type, to a factor. This is necessary because logistic regression deals with categorical outcomes.
Fitting the Model:
R1# Fit a logistic regression model 2logistic_model <- glm(am ~ mpg + hp, data = mtcars, family = binomial) 3print(summary(logistic_model))
We fit a logistic regression model to predict the transmission type (am
) based on mpg
and hp
. The glm
function is used with the family
parameter set to binomial
to specify a logistic regression model.
Making Predictions and Evaluating the Model:
R1# Make predictions and generate a confusion matrix for accuracy assessment 2predictions <- predict(logistic_model, type = "response") 3pred_class <- ifelse(predictions > 0.5, 1, 0) 4confusion_matrix <- table(Predicted = pred_class, Actual = mtcars$am) 5accuracy <- sum(diag(confusion_matrix)) / sum(confusion_matrix) 6cat("Confusion Matrix\n") 7print(confusion_matrix) 8cat(sprintf("Accuracy: %.2f\n", accuracy))
In this step, we:
Make Predictions: Using the predict
function, we generate predicted probabilities for each observation in the dataset. The type="response"
argument specifies that we want the predicted probabilities.
Convert Probabilities to Class Labels: Once we have the predicted probabilities, we convert them to class labels (0 or 1) using a threshold value of 0.5. If the predicted probability is greater than 0.5, we classify the observation as 1 (automatic transmission), otherwise as 0 (manual transmission).
Generate a Confusion Matrix: The confusion matrix is a table that summarizes the performance of a classification algorithm. It compares the predicted class labels (Predicted
) with the actual class labels (Actual
). The confusion matrix helps us understand where our model is making correct predictions and where it is making errors.
The structure of a confusion matrix is as follows:
Calculate Accuracy: Accuracy is the proportion of correctly classified instances over the total instances. It is calculated as the sum of the diagonal elements of the confusion matrix (TP + TN) divided by the total number of observations.
By evaluating the confusion matrix and accuracy, we get a clearer picture of our logistic regression model's performance. The confusion matrix allows us to see both the correct classifications and the types of errors the model is making, while the accuracy gives us a single metric to assess the overall performance.
Modeling and prediction are at the heart of data science and analytics. By learning these techniques, you will be able to:
Understanding and applying these methods will enhance your data analysis toolkit, enabling you to derive deeper insights and make data-driven decisions. I can't wait to explore this with you. Let's dive in and start modeling the future!