Lesson 5

Welcome to this most intriguing and yet somewhat confusing approach in the world of algorithms — *recursion*. Today, we will be diving deep into `Advanced Recursion Techniques`

. These techniques will not just broaden your understanding of the concept but also equip you with the ability to tackle complex problems comfortably. **Recursion**, simply put, is a method where the solution to a problem depends on smaller instances of the same problem. Advanced recursion techniques allow us to solve problems involving deep tree structures and backtracking, which are quite common in certain interview questions.

To give you a small taste of what's in store, let's take a look at a recursive function that generates all permutations of a list of numbers. The strategy here is to use a method known as **backtracking**. Backtracking is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to some computational problems. In our example, we are recursively swapping all elements (for each index from the first to the last), moving one step further in the depth of the list after each recursion until we reach the end. Once we get there, we append the current state of the array to our results array.

Python`1def permute(nums): 2 def backtrack(first=0): 3 if first == len(nums): 4 result.append(nums[:]) 5 for i in range(first, len(nums)): 6 nums[first], nums[i] = nums[i], nums[first] # Swap numbers 7 backtrack(first + 1) 8 nums[first], nums[i] = nums[i], nums[first] # Swap them back to reset the state 9 10 result = [] 11 backtrack() 12 return result 13 14print(permute([1, 2, 3])) # Output: [[1, 2, 3], [1, 3, 2], [2, 1, 3], [2, 3, 1], [3, 2, 1], [3, 1, 2]]`

Now that we've briefly touched on what advanced recursion techniques are about, it's time to roll up your sleeves and delve into some practice problems. Through these exercises, you will gain a solid understanding of how to apply these techniques to real-world problems and be ready to shine in your interviews. Remember, the key to mastering recursion is understanding and practice. Let's get started!