Lesson 1

Welcome to the lesson! Today, our journey will ride through the captivating world of **Complexity Analysis** and techniques for optimization. These fundamental concepts are crucial for every programmer, especially those seeking to build efficient and scalable programs. Having a firm understanding of how code impacts system resources enables us to optimize it for better performance. Isn't it fascinating how we can tailor our code to be more efficient? So, buckle up and let's get started!

First things first, let's remind ourselves of what *Complexity Analysis* is. Simply put, *Complexity Analysis* is a way of determining how our data input size affects the performance of our program, most commonly in terms of time and space. In more technical terms, it’s a theoretical measure of the execution of an algorithm, particularly the time or memory needed, given the problem size `n`

, which is usually the number of items. Interested in how it works?

Let's take, for example, a linear search function that looks for a value `x`

in an array of size `n`

. In the worst-case scenario, the function has to traverse the entire array, thus taking time proportional to `n`

. We would say that this function has a time complexity of `O(n)`

.

C++`1#include <iostream> 2#include <vector> 3 4int linear_search(int x, const std::vector<int>& lst) { 5 for (size_t i = 0; i < lst.size(); ++i) { 6 if (lst[i] == x) { 7 return i; 8 } 9 } 10 return -1; 11} 12 13int main() { 14 std::vector<int> lst = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}; 15 int index = linear_search(5, lst); 16 // index becomes 4 17 std::cout << "Index: " << index << std::endl; 18 return 0; 19}`

Now that we have refreshed our understanding of *complexity analysis*, let's delve into some basic examples of optimization. Optimization involves tweaking your code to make it more efficient by improving its runtime or reducing the space it uses.

An easy example of optimization could be replacing iterative statements (like a `for`

loop) with built-in functions or using simple mathematical formulas whenever possible. Consider two functions, each returning the sum of numbers from 1 to an input number `n`

.

The first one uses a `for`

loop:

C++`1#include <iostream> 2 3long long sum_numbers(int n) { 4 long long total = 0; 5 for (int i = 1; i <= n; ++i) { 6 total += i; 7 } 8 return total; 9} 10 11int main() { 12 long long result = sum_numbers(1000000); 13 std::cout << "Sum: " << result << std::endl; 14 return 0; 15}`

The second one uses a simple mathematical formula:

C++`1#include <iostream> 2 3long long sum_numbers(int n) { 4 return static_cast<long long>(n) * (n + 1) / 2; 5} 6 7int main() { 8 long long result = sum_numbers(1000000); 9 std::cout << "Sum: " << result << std::endl; 10 return 0; 11}`

While both functions yield the same result, the second one is much more efficient. It doesn't need to iterate through all the numbers between 1 and `n`

. This is a classic example of optimization, where we've reimagined our approach to solving a problem in a way that uses fewer resources.

Note that although all the values between `1`

and `n`

are of type `int`

, we must consider that the result of the operations can exceed the limits of the `int`

type. Therefore, we perform conversions to `long long`

.

Next, let's explore a more complex optimization example with a function that checks for duplicate numbers in an array. Here's the initial version of such a function, which uses two `for`

loops:

C++`1#include <iostream> 2#include <vector> 3 4bool contains_duplicate(const std::vector<int>& lst) { 5 for (size_t i = 0; i < lst.size(); ++i) { 6 for (size_t j = i + 1; j < lst.size(); ++j) { 7 if (lst[i] == lst[j]) { 8 return true; 9 } 10 } 11 } 12 return false; 13} 14 15int main() { 16 std::vector<int> lst = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1}; 17 bool result = contains_duplicate(lst); 18 std::cout << "Contains Duplicate: " << (result ? "Yes" : "No") << std::endl; 19 return 0; 20}`

This function checks every pair of numbers, resulting in a time complexity of `O(n²)`

. Here's why: for every element in the array, it compares it with almost every other element. So, the number of operations grows quadratically with `n`

, hence the complexity `O(n²)`

.

However, we can optimize this function by sorting the array first and then checking the elements next to each other:

C++`1#include <iostream> 2#include <vector> 3#include <algorithm> 4 5bool contains_duplicate(std::vector<int>& lst) { 6 std::sort(lst.begin(), lst.end()); 7 for (size_t i = 1; i < lst.size(); ++i) { 8 if (lst[i] == lst[i - 1]) { 9 return true; 10 } 11 } 12 return false; 13} 14 15int main() { 16 std::vector<int> lst = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1}; 17 bool result = contains_duplicate(lst); 18 std::cout << "Contains Duplicate: " << (result ? "Yes" : "No") << std::endl; 19 return 0; 20}`

Now, even including the time it takes to sort the array (usually `O(n log n)`

), this updated function is more efficient. The time complexity of the sorting operation using C++'s standard sorting algorithm is `O(n log n)`

. After sorting, we only make a single pass through the array — an `O(n)`

operation. But since `O(n log n)`

is more significant than `O(n)`

for large `n`

, the overall time complexity is `O(n log n)`

.

Congratulations on making it this far! Today we explored the exciting world of **Complexity Analysis** and code optimization. We dove into the intricate details of how the code impacts resources and how we can fine-tune the code to make it more efficient. You learned how we can use either mathematical formulas or C++’s built-in functions to optimize our code, thereby making it more resource-friendly.

As we move forward, remember that the concept of *complexity analysis* and *optimization* isn’t just to assess the performance of code or to optimize it, but also to aid in making informed design choices when there are numerous ways to implement a solution. Now, go ahead and practice some of these techniques. Try optimizing your code in the next practice session. Happy coding! Continue experimenting, and your proficiency will soon rival that of an expert programmer!