Lesson 4

Decision Trees in NLP: Mastering Text Classification

Topic Overview and Actualization

Hello and welcome! In today's lesson, we dive into the world of Decision Trees in text classification. Decision Trees are simple yet powerful supervised learning algorithms used for classification and regression problems. In this lesson, our focus will be on understanding the Decision Tree algorithm and implementing it for a text classification problem. Let's get started!

Understanding Decision Trees for Classification

Decision Trees are a type of flowchart-like structure in which each internal node represents a feature, each branch represents a decision rule, and each leaf node represents an outcome or a class label. The topmost node in a Decision Tree is known as the root node, which best splits the dataset.

Splitting is a process of dividing a node into two or more sub-nodes, and a Decision Tree uses certain metrics during this training phase to find the best split. These include Entropy, Gini Index, and Information Gain.

The advantage of Decision Trees is that they require relatively little effort for data preparation yet can handle both categorical and numeric data. They are visually intuitive and easy to interpret.

Let's see how this interprets to our spam detection problem.

Loading and Preprocessing the Data

Before we dive into implementing Decision Trees, let's quickly load and preprocess our text dataset. This step will transform our dataset into a format that can be input into our machine learning models. This code block is being included for completeness:

1# Import the necessary libraries 2import pandas as pd 3from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer 4from sklearn import metrics 5from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split 6from sklearn import tree 7import datasets 8 9# Load the dataset 10spam_dataset = datasets.load_dataset('codesignal/sms-spam-collection', split='train') 11spam_dataset = pd.DataFrame(spam_dataset) 12 13# Define X (input features) and Y (output labels) 14X = spam_dataset["message"] 15Y = spam_dataset["label"] 16 17# Perform the train test split using stratified cross-validation 18X_train, X_test, Y_train, Y_test = train_test_split(X, Y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42, stratify=Y) 19 20# Initialize the CountVectorizer 21count_vectorizer = CountVectorizer() 22 23# Fit and transform the training data 24X_train_count = count_vectorizer.fit_transform(X_train) 25 26# Transform the test data 27X_test_count = count_vectorizer.transform(X_test)

With our data now prepared, let's move on to implementing Decision Trees using the Scikit-learn library.

Implementing Decision Trees for Text Classification

In this section, we create our Decision Trees model using the Scikit-learn library:

1# Initialize the DecisionTreeClassifier model 2decision_tree_model = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier() 3 4# Fit the model on the training data 5decision_tree_model.fit(X_train_count, Y_train)

Here, we initialize the model using the DecisionTreeClassifier() class and then fit it to our training data with the fit() method.

Prediction and Model Evaluation

After our model has been trained, it's time to make predictions on the test data and evaluate the model's performance:

1# Make predictions on the test data 2y_pred = decision_tree_model.predict(X_test_count)

Lastly, we calculate the accuracy score, which is the ratio of the number of correct predictions to the total number of predictions. The closer this number is to 1, the better our model:

1# Calculate the accuracy of the model 2accuracy = metrics.accuracy_score(Y_test, y_pred) 3 4# Print the accuracy 5print(f"Accuracy of Decision Tree Classifier: {accuracy:.2f}")

The output of the above code will be:

Plain text
1Accuracy of Decision Tree Classifier: 0.97

This high accuracy score indicates that our Decision Tree model is performing exceptionally well in classifying messages as spam or not spam.

Lesson Summary and Practice

Great job! You've learned the theory of Decision Trees, successfully applied it to a text classification problem, and evaluated the performance of your model. Understanding and mastering Decision Trees is an essential step in your journey to becoming skilled in Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning.

To reinforce what we've learned, the next step is to tackle some exercises that will give you hands-on experience with Decision Trees. This practical experience will reinforce your learning and deepen your understanding.

Looking forward to delving even deeper into natural language processing? Let's proceed to our next lesson: Random Forest for Text Classification. Happy Learning!

Enjoy this lesson? Now it's time to practice with Cosmo!

Practice is how you turn knowledge into actual skills.